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Protect your family
Many different fire extinguishers are sold in South Africa, some of which fail to meet the safety and quality standards that have been laid down by ISO and SABS. Make sure that your family and property are safe by only buying extinguishers from a reliable supplier, and by making sure that your product carries the SABS mark of approval....
Fire extinguisher regulations
On 4 October 1996, in terms of a notice that was issued in Government Gazette # 17468, the following regulations were incorporated into the Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSA) No. 85 of 1993: 1. No user shall use, require or permit the use of a hand-held fire extinguisher unless designed, constructed, filled, recharged, reconditioned, modified, repaired, inspected or tested in a...
Maintenance and restoration of fire extinguishers
Most countries worldwide have legislation in place to ensure that regular fire extinguisher maintenance is performed by competent fire safety professionals. Lack of maintenance can lead to a fire extinguisher not discharging its contents when it is required to do so, or might even lead to the extinguisher rupturing under pressure. Deaths still occur due to corroded extinguishers explodi...
Cooking fires
If a fire breaks out when you are cooking with grease or oil in a pan, slide the pan lid over the flames to smother them, then turn off the heat and leave the lid in place until the pan cools down. Do NOT try to carry the pan outside. Extinguish other food-related fires with baking soda. Never use water or flour on a fire that you are using for cooking. To smother an oven or broile...
Smoke filled environments
Be aware that smoke, which is a product of combustion, has the capacity to harm you long before the actual flames from the fire will. It is, therefore, advisable, when moving through a smoke-filled environment, to do the following: Stay as close to the ground as possible, as the meter of air above the ground tends to remain relatively smoke-free. Move towards, and then along, the walls of t...
Car engine fire
In the case of a fire occurring in the engine of a car, get out of the car, taking the extinguisher with you. Open the bonnet of the car carefully, taking care not to be overcome by smoke fumes, and immediately aim the fire extinguisher at the fire to extinguish it. Do not first investigate the cause of the fire, as any delay in dealing with the fire might lead to irreparable ...
What to do in case of fire
No generic action plan exists for dealing with all fires, due to the unique nature and characteristics of each fire, including where it occurs and its size. However, the basic actions that can be taken in the event of a fire follow: Maintain a range of fire extinguishers for different classes of fire, making sure that they are charged at all times. Raise the alarm and call the fire brigade....
Symbolic safety sign categories
Symbolic safety signs are split up into five different categories, of which each is recognizable by its colour and shape. The five categories are the following: The prohibition category consists of signs bearing a black symbol on a white circular background surrounded by a red circular border, crossed through with a red diagonal line. Some examples of such signs are those forbidding the use of...
Symbolic safety signs
Safety signs are used for informing the occupants of buildings about what and how to avoid hazardous circumstances, including fires. Though you do not need to erect safety signs in your own home, you should know the basics about safety signs. South Africa is a member of the International Standards Organization (ISO), which has published recommendations for the use of symbolic safety sign...
Where to place extinguishers
The positioning of fire extinguishers is usually subject to various factors, and is subject to the outcome of a fire risk assessment; however, it is recommended that extinguishers are placed in conspicuous positions, which are not more than approximately 20 meters apart. Extinguishers should be mounted on brackets that are no more than 1.25 meters from the floor, or on low shelves that ar...
Fire suppression systems
In addition to the conventional fire extinguishers that are often seen in red containers, fire extinguishers also come in various other forms, such as in the form of suppression systems, which can vary from sprinklers, gas suppression, foam, and CO2 systems to argonite and FM 200 (halon replacement) systems. Selecting the most appropriate application of fire-fighting equipment is the key to pr...
Fire blankets
Fire blankets are fire-resistant, light and easy to handle. You can use them to extinguish a fire on a person whose clothing has caught on fire, by wrapping the blanket around the body of the person concerned. You can also use a fire blanket to cover a stove in the event of a pan fire, or even use one to cover yourself with in order that you might flee a building through its hot spots, if ...
Fire hose reels
The fire hose reel is also, by definition, considered to be a portable fire-fighting appliance, due to its extended hose feature. Such reels are often available in a swing-type design, which offers an all-directional flexibility, or which else comes in a static installation. Since the fire hose reel uses water, it is only effective against Class A fires....
Vaporizing liquid / argonite extinguishers
Argonite extinguishers are identifiable by means of their green instruction label. They are best suited for use on flammable liquid (Class A) fires and on electrical (Class C) fires. Such extinguishers contain a blend of argon and nitrogen, which is stored in the fire extinguisher under the pressure of nitrogen. When the blend is expelled, it is vaporized by the heat of the fire, produ...
DCP extinguisher use
To use a DCP extinguisher, follow the PASS steps (same method as with water extinguishers) in the following order: Remove the safety pin (Pull). Direct the jet of water at the base of the flames (Aim). Squeeze the trigger of the discharge lever (Squeeze). Keep moving the jet across the area in a sweeping motion (Sweep). Only try to combat small, minor fires. Keep in mind that ...
Dry chemical powder (DCP) extinguishers
Dry chemical extinguishers are very effective for quelling Class B fires, as they can readily halt the spread of burning liquid. Dry chemical powder extinguishers are identifiable by their blue instruction label, and are best suited to combating larger flammable liquid fires (Class A), though they can also be used on electrical fires (Class C). They are often referred to as ABC dry powder ...
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) extinguishers
CO2 extinguishers are well suited for use on small Class B fires, as well as on Class C fires, since CO2 is a non-conductor of electricity. Such extinguishers can be identified by means of the black instruction label that they bear. They are considered best suited for fighting those fires which involve electrical equipment, but also effectively cope with flammable liquids, so that they are...
Foam extinguishers
Foam extinguishers are well suited for use on small Class B fires to combat the spreading of burning liquid. Such fire extinguishers can be identified by the cream-coloured label that they bear, and should be used on fires involving flammable liquids, such as grease, gasoline and oil. The foam serves to cool the fire down, to prevent the release of vapour from the fire, to prevent reigniti...
Water extinguisher use
To use a water extinguisher, follow the PASS steps in the following order: Remove the safety pin (Pull). Direct the jet of water at the base of the flames (Aim). Squeeze the trigger of the discharge lever (Squeeze). Keep moving the jet across the area in a sweeping motion (Sweep). Only try to combat small, minor fires. The disadvantage in using a water extinguisher is that it ...
Water extinguishers
Water extinguishers have better cooling properties than do other fire extinguishers and can readily penetrate to reach a deep-seated fire. A deep-seated fire is a fire which usually burns far below the surface in a duff, mulch, peat or other combustible as contrasted with a surface fire. Water extinguishers are identifiable by their red instruction label, and are considered effective for d...
Water extinguishers
Water extinguishers have better cooling properties than do other fire extinguishers and can readily penetrate to reach a deep-seated fire. A deep-seated fire is a fire which usually burns far below the surface in a duff, mulch, peat or other combustible as contrasted with a surface fire. Water extinguishers are identifiable by their red instruction label, and are considered effective for d...
Water extinguishers
Water extinguishers have better cooling properties than do other fire extinguishers and can readily penetrate to reach a deep-seated fire. A deep-seated fire is a fire which usually burns far below the surface in a duff, mulch, peat or other combustible as contrasted with a surface fire. Water extinguishers are identifiable by their red instruction label, and are considered effective for d...
Hand-held fire extinguishers
A hand-held fire extinguisher is a portable appliance which is suited to handling by a normal person of average physical strength. Such a fire extinguisher usually ranges from a total mass of as little as 1kg to about 23kg. A fire extinguisher like this must be considered as „first-aid‟ fire-fighting equipment, due to the limited duration of discharge of such equipment. A p...
Different types of fire-extinguishing appliances
Numerous different fire-extinguishing appliances are available, including, though not limited to, the following types of appliance: 1. Hand-held fire extinguishers 2. Water extinguishers 3. Foam extinguishers 4. CO2 extinguishers 5. Dry chemical powder extinguishers 6. Vaporizing liquid extinguishers / argonite extinguishers 7. Fire hose reels 8. Fire blankets 9. Fire buckets 10. Fi...
Different types of fire-extinguishing appliances
Numerous different fire-extinguishing appliances are available, including, though not limited to, the following types of appliance: 1. Hand-held fire extinguishers 2. Water extinguishers 3. Foam extinguishers 4. CO2 extinguishers 5. Dry chemical powder extinguishers 6. Vaporizing liquid extinguishers / argonite extinguishers 7. Fire hose reels 8. Fire blankets 9. Fire buckets 10. Fi...
Different types of fire-extinguishing appliances
Numerous different fire-extinguishing appliances are available, including, though not limited to, the following types of appliance: 1. Hand-held fire extinguishers 2. Water extinguishers 3. Foam extinguishers 4. CO2 extinguishers 5. Dry chemical powder extinguishers 6. Vaporizing liquid extinguishers / argonite extinguishers 7. Fire hose reels 8. Fire blankets 9. Fire buckets 10. Fi...
Different types of fire-extinguishing appliances
Numerous different fire-extinguishing appliances are available, including, though not limited to, the following types of appliance: 1. Hand-held fire extinguishers 2. Water extinguishers 3. Foam extinguishers 4. CO2 extinguishers 5. Dry chemical powder extinguishers 6. Vaporizing liquid extinguishers / argonite extinguishers 7. Fire hose reels 8. Fire blankets 9. Fire buckets 10. Fi...
Different stages of Fire prevention part 4
31. Dispose of hot coals properly — douse them with plenty of water, and stir them to ensure that the fire is out. Do NOT place them in plastic, paper or wooden containers. 32. Do NOT grill or barbecue in enclosed areas that are not fitted with the appropriate filtering devices, otherwise harmful carbon monoxide gas might be produced. 33. Make sure that all family members kno...
Different stages of Fire prevention part 3
16. Do NOT keep gasoline in the house. 17. Keep curtains, towels and pot-holders away from hot surfaces. 18. Store solvents and flammable cleaners away from heat sources. 19. Do NOT leave any cooking unattended. 20. When children are old enough to cook without supervision, teach them how to cook safely. 21. Clean cooking surfaces to prevent food and grease build-up. 22. Turn pan handl...
Different stages of Fire prevention part 2
You can prevent fires from starting by doing the following: 1. Always keep a fire extinguisher close by. 2. Keep matches and lighters locked up and away from children. Check under beds and in closets for burnt matches, which might show that your child is playing with matches. 3. Teach your child that fire is a tool to respect, and not a toy with which to play. 4. Take great care when usi...
Different stages of Fire prevention part 1
Minimizing the risk of fires breaking out needlessly should be the number one priority in any fire safety strategy. Good housekeeping, including such simple actions as: avoiding smoking indoors, regularly testing electrical appliances, removing electrical heaters, and training staff can help to reduce the risk of such fires breaking out. Safety precautions like these should also be taken in the ...
The spread of fires
Fires spread by means of convection, radiation and conduction, in particular. Convection: Convection is the transport of heat by movement of the heated substance. Over four fifths of the heat of a fire is dispersed by air and other gases in this way. When heated, air becomes less dense than the surrounding atmosphere, and, when it is mixed with gases produced by the fire, moves upwards, formin...
Fire break out
For a fire to break out and to continue burning, which involves initiating and maintaining such a chemical reaction, the following three elements are required, the removal of any one of which will extinguish the fire: Fuel: Fuel consists of any combustible substance, no matter whether it is a solid, a liquid or a gas. Starving a fire of fuel will serve to extinguish it. Heat: A fire can only s...
Causes of fire
Before discussing possible ways of preventing fires, we need to look into the different causes of the most commonly occurring fires. The list of causes is not exhaustive, as it merely indicates the key risk areas that are likely to be encountered. Open flames are the reason for 43% of the fires that break out in South Africa on a yearly basis. The high cost of, and lack of access ...
THE FIRE EXTINGUISHER
Fire statistics published by the Fire Protection Association of South Africa show that 376 South Africans died in the more than 40 000 fires that occurred in the country during 2007. As many as 9 746 fires were reported to have occurred in private homes during the same period, resulting in losses of more than R573bn. In addition, a total number of 1 675 industrial fires occurred, resulting in lo...
Hydrostatic test
A hydrostatic test is a way in which pressure vessels such as pipelines, plumbing, gas cylinders, boilers and fuel tanks can be tested for strength and leaks. The test involves filling the vessel or pipe system with a liquid, usually water, which may be dyed to aid in visual leak detection, and pressurization of the vessel to the specified test pressure. Pressure tightness can be tested by shuttin...
Hydrotest

Definition - What does Hydrotest mean?

Hydrotest, also known as hydrostatic test, is a way of checking the integrity of pressure vessels such as natural gas pipelines, gas cylinders, boilers, storage tanks as well as fuel tanks. With the help of this test, pressure tightness, strength and any leakages are checked. This test ensures the safety of the cost intensive setup and the ...
Hydrostatic Testing
Hydrostatic (Hydro) Testing is a process where components such as piping systems, gas cylinders, boilers, and pressure vessels are tested for strength and leaks. Hydro tests are often required after shutdowns and repairs in order to validate that equipment will operate under desired conditions once returned to service. Furthermore, hydrostatic testing cannot be performed during normal operat...
sprinklers per zone or valve

How many sprinklers can be used per zone or valve?

In order to determine how many heads you can use per zone, you need to know your water pressure and flow rate. At different pressures, the sprinkler head and nozzle will consume different amounts of water. For example, at 35 pounds per square inch (PSI) the 5000 Series Rotor using the 3.0 nozzle will use 3.11 gallons per minute (GPM). If...
Prevent Fire Outbreaks

8 Often Overlooked Ways to Prevent Fire Outbreaks in Your Home

Always put off appliances when not in use

For those who go to work, put off all appliances at home to avoid voltage surge that may follow when power is restored after an outage. The same applies for the office when leaving.

Do not overload electrical sockets

Avoid overloading e...

TYPES OF CLEAN AGENTS FOR FIRE SUPPRESSION
Fire protection companies, like State Systems, can install a variety of brand and manufacturer clean agent fire protection systems. Even if you have an outdated Halon fire protection system, certified fire protection technicians can use the standing structure and layout to upgrade to a state of the art clean agent system. Acceptable clean agents, like FM-200 and carbon dioxide, meet the standards ...
How Clean Agent Fire Suppression Systems Work
Fire protection systems sometimes harm – and even destroy – the very items they are intended to protect. Your intent with commercial fire protection is to prevent damage– not cause it. Clean agent fire suppression systems are an innovative approach to fire protection that protect the employees, assets, records, and equipment that are crucial to your Memphis-area business&rsq...
Fire control
Fire control is the practice of reducing the heat output of a fire, reducing the area over which the fire exists, or suppressing or extinguishing the fire by depriving it of fuel, oxygen, or heat (see fire triangle). The classification below relates to the United States of America. Different classifications exist in other countries.

Class-A fires

The most common method to control ...
Fire protection
Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of potentially destructive fires.[1] It involves the study of the behaviour, compartmentalisation, suppression and investigation of fire and its related emergencies, as well as the research and development, production, testing and application of mitigating systems. In structures, be they land-based, offshore or even ships...
Fire Control Room
Located inside the building, the Fire Control Room is the nerve center for the building. Located here are the controls for the building's fire protection systems, fire pump, secondary water supply, air-handling systems, stairwell door controls, communications and elevator controls. Also located here is another key cabinet. The cabinet contains keys to all areas of the building to which ...
Automatic fire suppression
Automatic fire suppression systems control and extinguish fires without human intervention. Examples of automatic systems include fire sprinkler system, gaseous fire suppression, and condensed aerosol fire suppression. When fires are extinguished in the early stages loss of life is minimal since 93% of all fire-related deaths occur once the fire has progressed beyond the early stages. Today t...
Navy Fire Controlman Job Description

These Sailors Operate Surface Ship Weapons

Navy fire controlmen (FC) operate certain weapons systems aboard Navy surface combatant ships. This is a highly technical, highly challenging rating (as the Navy refers to its jobs) in the advanced electronics and computer field. Fire controlman is a highly competitive rating within the Navy, so standards for recruits are very high. If you&#...
Trigger
A trigger is a specific set of conditions that dictates initiation of fires. Often referred to as engagement criteria, a trigger specifies the circumstances in which subordinate elements are to engage. The circumstances can be based on a friendly or enemy event. For example, the trigger for a platoon to initiate engagement could be three or more enemy combat vehicles passing or crossing a given p...
PREVENT FRATRICIDE
The platoon leader must be proactive in reducing the risk of fratricide, especially when it concerns his dismounted infantry squads on the multi-dimensional battlefield. He has numerous tools to assist him in fratricide avoidance. (For a detailed discussion of fratricide avoidance refer to Appendix D). a. The SBCT platoon can use infrared and thermal marking techniques to ensure that adjacent uni...
FIRE CONTROL AND DISTRIBUTION TECHNIQUES
Suppressing or destroying the enemy with direct fires is fundamental to success in close combat. Effective direct fires are essential to winning the close fight. Because fire and movement are complementary components of maneuver, the SBCT infantry platoon leader must be able to effectively mass the fires of all available resources at critical points and times to be successful on the battlefiel...
Water Mist
One of the most promising automatic extinguishing technologies is the recently available fine water droplet, or mist systems. This technology represents another tool that can provide automatic fire suppression in some cultural property applications. Potential uses include locations where reliable water supplies do not exist, where even sprinkler water discharges are too high, or whe...
Sprinkler Concerns
Several common misconceptions about sprinkler systems exist. Consequently, heritage building owners and operators are often reluctant to provide this protection, especially for collections storage and other water sensitive spaces. Typical misunderstandings include:
  • When one sprinkler operates, all will activate. With the exception of deluge systems (discussed later in this lea...
Dry pipe systems
Dry pipe systems have some disadvantages that must be evaluated before selecting this equipment. These include:
  • Increased complexity. Dry pipe systems require additional control equipment and air pressure supply components, which increases system complexity. Without proper maintenance this equipment may be less reliable than a comparable wet pipe system.
  • Higher installation ...
System Types
There are three basic types of sprinkler systems: wet pipe, dry pipe and preaction, with each having applicability, depending on a variety of conditions such as potential fire severity, anticipated fire growth rates, content water sensitivity, ambient conditions, and desired response. In large multifunction facilities, such as a major museum or library, two or more system types may be employed. W...
major sprinkler system components
  • Control valves. A sprinkler system must be capable of shut down after the fire has been controlled, and for periodic maintenance and modification. In the simplest system a single shutoff valve may be located at the point where the water supply enters the building. In larger buildings the sprinkler system may consist of multiple zones with a control valve for each. Control valves should ...
Basic water source criteria
  • The source must be available at all times. Fires can happen at any time and therefore, the water supply must be in a constant state of readiness. Supplies must be evaluated for resistance to pipe failure, pressure loss, droughts, and other issues that may impact availability.
  • The system must provide adequate sprinkler supply and pressure. A sprinkler system will create a hydr...
FIRE SPRINKLERS
Introduction For most fires, water represents the ideal extinguishing agent. Fire sprinklers utilize water by direct application onto flames and heat, which causes cooling of the combustion process and prevents ignition of adjacent combustibles. They are most effective during the fire's initial flame growth stage, while the fire is relatively easy to control. A properly selected sprinkler wi...
FIRE DETECTION AND ALARM SYSTEMS
Introduction A key aspect of fire protection is to identify a developing fire emergency in a timely manner, and to alert the building's occupants and fire emergency organizations. This is the role of fire detection and alarm systems. Depending on the anticipated fire scenario, building and use type, number and type of occupants, and criticality of contents and mission, these systems can prov...
FIRE GROWTH AND BEHAVIOR
Before attempting to understand fire detection systems and automatic sprinklers, it is beneficial to possess a basic knowledge of fire development and behavior. With this information, the role and interaction of these supplemental fire safety systems in the protection process can then be better realized. Basically, a fire is a chemical reaction in which a carbon based material (fuel), mixes with ...
Fire Detection, Alarm, and Automatic Fire Sprinkle

ABSTRACT

Cultural property management is entrusted with the responsibility of protecting and preserving an institution's buildings, collections, operations and occupants. Constant attention is required to minimize adverse impact due to climate, pollution, theft, vandalism, insects, mold and fire. Because of the speed and totality of the destructive forces of fire, it constitutes...

Ten things you should not do during a fire
Don’t not install smoke alarm detectors A smoke detector gives early warning of a fire increasing the chances of escape. They are so cheap and easy to fit you can have no excuses Pop upstairs to retrieve heirlooms, passports and pets Fire can spread very quickly blocking your escape r...
What should you do during a fire method 3

Preventing Future House Fires

Form and practice your family's escape plan. The best way to prevent house fires is for your family to have a plan of escape in the event of a fire. You should form your plan and practice it at least twice a year to get comfortable with the routine and to ensure that you'll be clear-he...
What should you do during a fire method 2

What to do Once You Exit Your Home

Do a head count. If anybody is missing, only re-enter the building if it is safe to do so. Tell the first responders immediately on their arrival if you are afraid somebody is missing. Likewise, if everybody is accounted for, let the fire responders know so that they're no&#...
What should you do during a fire method 1

How to Keep Safe During a House Fire

Method 1

Keeping Safe in Your House During a Fire

React as soon as you hear your smoke alarm go off. Smoke from a fire will put you in deeper sleep. If you hear your smoke detector or alarm going off and ...
What is fire
What is Fire? Typically, fire comes from a chemical reaction between oxygen in the atmosphere and some sort of fuel (wood or gasoline, for example). Of course, wood and gasoline don't spontaneously catch on fire just because they're surrounded by oxygen. For the combustion reaction to happe...
Top causes of fire

Cooking equipment is the leading cause of home structure fires and home fire injuries.

Smoking is the leading cause of civilian home fire deaths. Heating equipment is the second most common cause of home fire fatalities. What you should know about home cooking safety
  • Be on...
Fires and Oxygen
Can a fire burn in a room with no oxygen? A fire cannot burn without oxygen. You can show this for yourself, in fact: if you light a small candle and then put a clear glass upside-down over that candle (without touching the flame), you can watch the flame slowly extinguish as it uses up all of the oxygen that you have trapped around it with the glass. What if...
Fire
Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products. Slower oxidative processes like rusting or digestion are not included by this definition. Fire is hot because the conversion of the weak double bond in molecular oxygen, O2, to the stronger bonds in the combustion produ...
Fire safety
Did you know that if a fire starts in your home you may have as little as two minutes to escape? During a fire, early warning from a working smoke alarm plus a fire escape plan that has been practiced regularly can save lives. Learn what else to do to keep your loved ones safe!

Top Tips for Fire Safety

Install smoke alarms on every level of your hom...
Elements of fire safety properties

Fire safety

Fire safety is the set of practices intended to reduce the destruction caused by fire. Fire safety measures include those that are intended to prevent ignition of an uncontro...
Common causes of fire
Fire fighting may seem like something that is unnecessary or no longer useful, but it will save lives and precious possessions when a fire does strike due to natural or manmade causes. Training for situations like these can make the difference between life and death. More than 80% of fire related deaths occur in the house and in a home devoid of a fire sprinkle...
20 facts about fire

Fire makes water. Fire is a tree running in reverse. Fire is not a thing at all.

1 Fire is an event, not a thing. Heating wood or other fuel releases volatile vapors that can rapidly combust with oxygen in the air; the resulting incandescent bloom of gas further heats the fuel, releasing more vapors and perpetuating the cycle. 2 Most of t...
4 types of fire
Class A: Class A fires involve solid materials of an organic nature such as wood, paper, cloth, rubber and plastics that do not melt. Class B: Class B fires involves liquids. They include petrol, diesel, thinners, oils, paints, wax, cooking fat and plastics that melt. Class C: Class C fires involve electricity. Class D: Class D fires involve flammable metals such as magnesium, al...
Why is fire safety important?
Fire safety information saves lives. It’s as simple as that. Whether it’s in your own home or in your place of employment, education and clear markings of important fire hazards and safety equipment can prevent injuries and save structures as long as people are well aware of everything they need to know. Depending upon the environment where you are living o...